Home Page of Prof. Mohamed Zaki Helal      

"Endoscopic Nasal & Skull Base Surgery"

Professor of Rhinology & Skull Base Surgery, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

6- Endoscopic Surgery for Nasal Tumors



  1. Introduction
  2. Endoscopic Excision of Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma
  3. Endoscopic Excision of Clivus Tumors
  4. Endoscopic Excision of Inverted Papilloma


  1. Endoscopic Excision of Nasal Angiomas
  2. Endoscopic Biopsy for Nasal & Nasopharyngeal Masses



Skull base Approaches have many difficulties due to both anatomic complexity and presence of vital structures. To reach deep areas, normal tissues have to be either radically extirpated with subsequent reconstruction or mobilized with subsequent reposition and fixation.
Recent advances in both radiological and visually aided techniques facilitate management of such skull base lesions. Endoscopic surgery is superior to visually unaided conventional surgery in minimizing the need to mobilize or extirpate normal structures and in conserving cranial base anatomy and function. The angled panoramic endoscopic view with its unlimited depth of focus is the underlining factor in visualizing deep hidden recesses and in realizing anatomy at the best. Spatial orientation of anatomy is best with endoscopes and the magnification effect can be appreciated by coming closer to the target and also by the camera attached to the endoscope.

Endoscopic surgery alone can excise many benign nasal and anterior skull base tumors and tumor-like masses. A small percentage of malignant tumors can also be resected with adequate safety margins provided that they are early and of limited extensions. Endoscopes when augmented with microscope are excellent for excision of pituitary tumors and clival lesions. Traditional external approaches when augmented with endoscopes, limits of exposure are considerably expanded.

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